Nearly four out of five digital transformation efforts fail.1 When they do, organizations wonder why their technology investments did little to improve outcomes. If a government digital transformation project is unsuccessful, it is often because technology was prioritized without devoting equal attention to people and process. We identified elements of suc-cessful digital transformation programs: leadership, product, development, architecture, and opera-tions. Weakness in even one of these areas can reduce the value of transformation or derail the effort entirely. Planning government investments with these elements in mind helps prevent common fail-ures and produce demonstrable mission outcomes (Table 1).